מהי גרפולוגיה?

גרפולוגיה היא גישה או תורה שמנסה להיות מדעית וטוענת לקשר בין הכתב של האדם שהוא כותב בידו לבין האישיות שלו. ישנו תחום של גרפולוגיה משפטית שאינו בהכרח נובע או מתבסס על תורה זו אך כן נעשה בו שימוש בבתי משפט בעת ניתוח ניתוח מסמכים וחתימות או השוואה ביניהם במטרה לגלות זיופי מסמכים או חתימות. גם בתחום זה נעשה ניסיון להשתמש בכלים מדעיים ולכן מי שעוסק בו מוכר לרוב כעד מומחה בבית משפט.

גרפולוג יכול להתיימר להבין או להקיש מכתב ידו של אדם על אישיותו ואורח חייו. מחקרים רבים שנעשו בתחום לא הצליחו לאשש קביעה זו ולהוכיח שזהו אכן המקרה אלא להיפך. בעבר נעשה שימוש נרחב בגרפולוגיה במדינות רבות באופן רשמי או כזה המתיימר להיות רשמית בכל הקשור לאיבחון בעבודה או איבחון רפואי. בשנים האחרונות השימוש בגרפולוגיה ככלי בתחום התעסוקתי או הרפואי נמצא בירידה, אולי פרט לצרפת בה הוא מקובל יותר אך ביתר מדינות המערב השימוש הולך וקטן בעיקר בשוק העבודה בו נעשה שימוש בכלים אחרים לחלוטין.

לגרפולוגיה הנחות בסיסיות עליהן היא מסתמכת שכאמור לא נמצאה להם הוכחה אמפירית אמיתית במחקרים. אך ההנחה הראשונה והמהותית ביותר היא העובדה שאופי אכן משתקף בכתב היד של האדם ומוצא בו ביטוי, השנייה היא שהאדם מרצונו אינו יכול לשנות את צורת כתיבתו מבלי שבכתב יימצאו סימנים ברורים למאמץ זה.

ההנחה השלישית היא שתנועות הכתיבה מותאמות למערכת העצבים ולכן שינוי במערכת זו יגרום גם לשינוי באופן הכתיבה. וההנחה האחרונה היא כי כל אות או תו משתנות על פי ההקשר, הלחץ והנסיבות ואינן בלתי משתנות כלל.

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